Undocumented Trusts – No Requirement for Formal Trust Agreements

Josef FinkelAppeals, Civil Litigation, Commercial and Contract Litigation, Contract Disputes, Recreational Property Litigation, Trust Litigation0 Comments

In the recent decision from the Ontario Court of Appeal (“ONCA”), Corvello v. Colucci, 2022 ONCA 159, the ONCA confirmed that a trust can exist even where there is no written trust agreement. At issue in the case was the ownership of a land use permit which allowed the holder(s) of the permit to build on and use the land for recreational purposes. In the court of first instance, the appellant took the position that the permit belonged to him alone. However, the trial judge determined that the appellant actually held the permit “in trust for himself and the respondents as beneficial owners”. On appeal, the appellant argued that the trial judge erred in law and in fact by determining that an undocumented trust agreement existed. The ONCA advised that it is trite law that a valid trust requires “three certainties: certainty of intention to create a trust, certainty of … Read More

Broker and Agent Liability Claims Arbitrator – Reasonable Fees – Good Availability

David Alderson, LL.B, LL.M (Commercial and Corporate), Lawyer, Qualified Arbitrator and MediatorAgency Arbitrator, Arbitration, Broker and Agent Claims, Brokerage Arbitrator, Commercial, Commercial Arbitrator, Real Estate Arbitrator, Sale of Business Arbitrator0 Comments

David Alderson, LL.B, LL.M, Qualified Arbitrator Broker Dispute Arbitrator | Agent Dispute Arbitrator  David Alderson is an independent, experienced and qualified Arbitrator. His practice in broker and agent claims in real estate, mortgage, business, securities and investment, insurance and  reinsurance, distribution, marine and transportation cases make him an ideal choice as sole or panel arbitrator in broker and agent claims arbitrations. He has been appointed by the courts in commercial arbitration disputes. Broker and Agent Claims Arbitration  David can be appointed in arbitrations concerning these professionals: Business (Sale of) Brokers Real Estate Brokers and Agents Realtors Mortgage Brokers Stockbrokers Securities Brokers Commodities Brokers Insurance  Brokers and Agents Life Insurance Agents Commercial Brokers Merchandise Broker Shipbrokers Yacht Brokers Freight Brokers Arbitration Expertise   David has arbitrated disputes on a wide variety of matters, and has been appointed by the Ontario Superior Court of Justice as sole arbitrator in commercial arbitration matters. He is an arbitrating … Read More

Family Violence: New Tort Recognized in Ontario

Josef FinkelCivil Liability, Civil Litigation, Sexual Assault, Sexual Harassment0 Comments

In the recent decision, Ahluwalia v. Ahluwalia, 2022 ONSC 1303, the court recognized the new tort of “family violence” as a civil remedy, outside of the scope of family/criminal liability. The court awarded $150,000 “in compensatory, aggravated, and punitive damages for the tort of family violence”, recognizing that such an award “is well-outside the normal boundaries of family law”. Recognition of the New Tort of Family Violence The court recognized that the Divorce Act “does not create a complete statutory scheme to address all the legal issues that arise in a situation of alleged family violence” and does not provide the victim of family violence “with a direct avenue to obtain reparations for harms that flow directly from family violence and that go well-beyond the economic fallout of the marriage”. Further, the Divorce Act prohibits consideration of “misconduct” when making a spousal award. At “its heart, spousal support is compensatory … Read More

Professional Liability Claims Arbitrator – Experienced and Qualified Arbitrator with Reasonable Fee Rates

David Alderson, LL.B, LL.M (Commercial and Corporate), Lawyer, Qualified Arbitrator and MediatorAlternative Dispute Resolution (ADR), Arbitration, Arbitrators, Brokerage Arbitrator, Business Arbitrator, Business Dispute Arbitrator, Commercial Arbitrator, Commercial Lease Arbitrator, Condo Arbitrator, Construction Arbitrator, Directors' and Officers' Liability, International Joint Venture, Investment Arbitrator, Joint Venture Arbitrator, Joint Venture Disputes, Partnership Arbitrator, Partnership Dispute, Partnership Dispute Arbitrator, Professional Liability Claims Arbitrator, Real Estate Arbitrator0 Comments

Professional Liability Claims Arbitrator  David Alderson is an independent, experienced and qualified Arbitrator.  Practice in professional liability, professional indemnity and professional negligence cases make him a good choice as sole or panel arbitrator in professional liability claims arbitrations. He has been appointed by the courts in commercial arbitration disputes. Business & Financial Professionals Property and Real Estate Professionals David can be appointed as sole arbitrator concerning claims and disputes involving these professionals: Business & Financial Professionals Directors Officers Accountants Actuaries Auditors Investment Advisors Financial Advisors Financial Planners Financial Analyst Investigators Consultants Trustees Securities Brokers Valuators Lawyers Partners Joint Venture Parties Retirement Plan Administrators Property and Real Estate Real Estate Brokers Real Estate Agents Stakeholders Fiduciaries Architects Engineers Auctioneers Lawyers Fiduciaries Trustees Estate Trustees Administrators Executors Receivers Trustees in Bankruptcy Lawyers Arbitration Expertise David has arbitrated disputes on a wide variety of matters, and has been appointed by the Ontario Superior … Read More

Are my Trademark Rights being Breached? Trademark Infringement and Passing Off Lawyers

Josef FinkelBrand Protection, Business Disputes, Civil Litigation, Commercial Litigation, Copyright Infringement, Intellectual Property, Passing Off, Trademark Infringement0 Comments

In Subway IP LLC v. Budway, Cannabis & Wellness Store, 2021 FC 583, the Federal Court of Canada (“FC”) found that the respondents infringed on the applicant’s registered trademark contrary to section 20 of the Trademarks Act. The FC found that the use of the “BUDWAY” trademark amounted to the tort of passing off and depreciation of goodwill in the appellant’s trademark. As a result, the court granted the applicant, Subway, damages in the amount of $15,000 and an injunction against the respondents prohibiting them, among other things, from dealing in goods or services in association with the trademark or trade name “BUDWAY”. What is Considered a Breach of Trademark Rights? In the FC’s reasons for its decision, it advised generally that: A trademark registration grants the owner the exclusive right to use the mark throughout Canada in respect of the goods and services in the registration; The right to … Read More

Court Orders Removal of Fake Reviews Posted by Anonymous Reviewer

Josef FinkelBusiness Defamation, Business Litigation, Civil Liability, Civil Litigation, Cyber Libel, Defamation, Harassment, Internet Defamation, Libel, Norwich Order, Online Defamation, Online Defamation, Online Harassment0 Comments

In Obsidian Group Inc. v. Google LLC, 2022 ONSC 848, the moving party brought a motion, prior to commencing its civil proceeding, for an interim injunction requiring the removal of certain messages about it posted on its Google review page by a pseudonymous reviewer. It also sought a Norwich Order (an order requiring an innocent third party to provide certain information) directing the respondent to divulge identifying information regarding the unknown reviewer. The court found that there were “strong grounds for suspecting that” the reviews are fake. The court also found that it “would not surprise anyone” given the content of the reviews that they are “causing continuous damage” to the business of the applicant. The reviews seem “designed to discourage people from ever booking a room at the hotel” of the applicant. Further, according to statistics provided by the applicant, the reviews were “accessed several thousand times since they … Read More

Waiving a Contractual Right May Not Be as Easy as You Might Think!

Josef FinkelAppeals, Civil Litigation, Commercial and Contract Litigation, Commercial Litigation0 Comments

In the recent decision from the Ontario Court of Appeal (“ONCA”), Jack Ganz Consulting Ltd. v. Recipe Unlimited Corporation, 2021 ONCA 907, the ONCA set aside the decision of the motion judge which dismissed the plaintiff’s claim on a motion for summary judgment brought by the respondent. The ONCA opined that the motion judge made an error in law by finding that the appellant had waived the auto renewal provision of the consulting agreement that forms the basis of the dispute. The motion judge’s decision stems largely from the appellant’s representative’s email in which he stated “Let this email serve to remove the auto renewal from the contract”. The motion judge found that this email resulted in a waiver of the auto renewal provision of the consulting agreement by the appellant, and that the waiver was accepted by the respondent in a subsequent email. Though the ONCA conceded that a … Read More

Arbitration and Summary Judgment – Is Summary Judgment Available in Arbitration Matters?

Josef FinkelAppeals, Arbitration, Civil Litigation, Commercial and Contract Litigation, Commercial Arbitration0 Comments

In the arbitration preceding the Ontario Superior Court of Justice (“OSCJ”) decision, Optiva Inc. v, Tbaytel, 2021 ONSC 2929 (CanLII), the respondent successfully brought a motion for summary judgment before a sole arbitrator. The applicant then appealed the arbitrator’s award to the OSCJ, arguing, among other things, that the arbitrator could not, absent consent of the applicant, proceed by way of summary judgment. The OSCJ disagreed with the respondent’s position, instead affirming that the “arbitrator could elect to proceed by summary judgment absent the consent of [the applicant]”. The court cited, as authority for its conclusion, section 20(1) of the Arbitration Act, which states: 20 (1) The arbitral tribunal may determine the procedure to be followed in the arbitration, in accordance with this Act. The OSCJ opined that “summary judgment should be available to the parties in an arbitration subject to the requirement” that the process: Allows the arbitrator to … Read More

Procurement Dispute Arbitrator – Independent, Qualified, Reasonable Hourly Fees, and Good Availability

David Alderson, LL.B, LL.M (Commercial and Corporate), Lawyer, Qualified Arbitrator and MediatorArbitration, Arbitrators, Commercial, Energy Arbitrator, Infrastructure Arbitrator, International Commercial Arbitrator, International Joint Venture Arbitrator, IT Arbitrator, Joint Venture Arbitrator, Marine Arbitrator, Procurement Arbitrator, Procurement Dispute Arbitrator, Sale of Goods Arbitrator, Technology Arbitrator, Transportation Arbitrator0 Comments

Procurement Arbitrator, Procurement Dispute Arbitration, Government Procurement ADR, Public Procurement Arbitrator, Goods and Services Dispute Arbitrator, Public Contract Arbitrator and P3 Contract Dispute Arbitrator Sole Arbitrator – $350.00 per hour, plus HST David Alderson is an independent, experienced and Qualified Arbitrator whose domestic and international practice in sale of goods and services, infrastructure, construction, projects, project finance and joint ventures make him an ideal choice as sole or panel arbitrator for procurement disputes involving any level of Government. The administration of arbitral services is provided by Gilbertson Davis LLP Arbitration Chambers, an established arbitration chambers serving Ontario and elsewhere, from its office in the Toronto Financial District.  David Alderson has been appointed by the Ontario Superior Court of Justice in commercial arbitration disputes. Procurement Disputes David can arbitrate disputes arising from contracts for goods or services involving any level of government in Canada, provinces or municipalities, multi-level joint venture, involving … Read More

Arbitration Chambers – in the Adelaide St. “Arbitration Alley”

David Alderson, LL.B, LL.M (Commercial and Corporate), Lawyer, Qualified Arbitrator and MediatorArbitration, Arbitrators, Business Dispute Arbitrator, Case Management Arbitrator, Commercial Arbitrator, Employment Dispute Arbitrator, Franchise Arbitrator, International Commercial Arbitrator, International Joint Venture Arbitrator, IT Arbitrator, Joint Venture Arbitrator, Litigation Motion Arbitrator, Marine Arbitrator, Motion by Arbitrator, Moving Litigation to Arbitration, Partnership Dispute Arbitrator, Real Estate Arbitrator, Reinsurance Arbitrator, Sale of Business Arbitrator, Sale of Goods Arbitrator, Shareholder Dispute Arbitrator, Technology Arbitrator, Transportation Arbitrator0 Comments

TorontoArbitrator.com  Gilbertson Davis LLP Arbitration Chambers is established among the numerous arbitration chambers situated along or nearby the the short span of Adelaide Street between Bay and Yonge Street in the Toronto Financial District. Sole Arbitrator – from $350.00 per hour, plus HST Reasonable Fees and Good Availability  It offers experienced, independent and qualified commercial arbitrators and commercial mediators at very competitive and reasonable hourly fee rates and good availability for hearings for both substantive dispute arbitration and procedural arbitration. Commercial Arbitrators  All our arbitrators are senior legal practitioners who also accept appointments as independent arbitrators. They are distinguished in their respective areas of practice and have differing legal practice backgrounds, through diversity of their legal experience in the world of reinsurance, insurance, business disputes, shareholder and partnership disputes, international trade & distribution, sale of goods, share of businesses, procurement, commercial leasing, employment, technology and marine matters, and from foreign legal … Read More

Motion by Arbitrator | Application by Arbitrator | Procedure Arbitration

David Alderson, LL.B, LL.M (Commercial and Corporate), Lawyer, Qualified Arbitrator and MediatorAppeals, Application by Arbitrator, Arbitration, Arbitrators, Business Dispute Arbitrator, Case Management Arbitrator, Commercial, Commercial Arbitration, Commercial Arbitrator, Motion by Arbitrator, Moving Litigation to Arbitration0 Comments

TorontoArbitrator.com  Sole Arbitrator – from $350.00 per hour, plus HST Access to Justice  Parties Agree That Motions & Applications be Heard and Determined by an Arbitrator  Lawyers are already doing this to address the needs of their clients in existing civil and commercial litigation in the courts. The courts in Ontario continue to address access to justice in the time of the coronavirus, providing a triage process to determine which matters are considered urgent and should be heard. Video conference arrangements in the courts have evolved.  We are mindful that both criminal and family law matters are likely to take priority both now and when traditional hearings become available post-coronavirus. Due to the current difficulty in obtaining an early date for the hearing of a motion or of an application, commercial and civil litigation lawyers are proactively addressing their client’s needs by arbitrating motions and application.  They agree to do … Read More

Business Dispute Arbitrator – Qualified Arbitrator with Reasonable Fees

David Alderson, LL.B, LL.M (Commercial and Corporate), Lawyer, Qualified Arbitrator and MediatorAgency Arbitrator, Arbitration, Arbitrators, Brokerage Arbitrator, Business Arbitrator, Business Dispute Arbitrator, Commercial, Commercial Arbitration, Commercial Arbitrator, Commercial Lease Arbitrator, Distribution Arbitrator, Employment Dispute Arbitrator, Energy Arbitrator, Franchise Arbitrator, Infrastructure Arbitrator, International Commercial Arbitrator, Internet Arbitrator, Investment Arbitrator, IT Arbitrator, Joint Venture Arbitrator, Licensing Arbitrator, Partnership Arbitrator, Partnership Dispute Arbitrator, Real Estate Arbitrator, Reinsurance Arbitrator, Sale of Business Arbitrator, Sale of Goods Arbitrator, Shareholder Arbitrator, Shareholder Dispute Arbitrator, Technology Arbitrator0 Comments

Business Disputes Arbitrator | Business Claims Arbitrator | Experienced Business Dispute and Business Claim Arbitrator | Independent and Qualified Arbitrator with Reasonable Fees and Good Availability  Sole Arbitrator – $350.00 per hour, plus HST Experience  David Alderson, LL.B, LL.M (Commercial and Corporate), Qualified Arbitrator accepts arbitrator appointments, both as sole arbitrator and as panel arbitrator, for business disputes and business claims, including corporate disputes, shareholder disputes, joint venture disputes, family business disputes, closely held business disputes and start-up business disputes, as well as sale of business disputes. He is qualified, independent, and offers appointment on reasonable fees and with good availability. The Ontario Superior Court of Justice has appointed David as arbitrator in commercial arbitration matters and he regularly sits as an arbitrator in business and commercial disputes. David is a member of the Toronto Commercial Arbitration Society, and has successfully completed the Toronto Commercial Arbitration Society Gold Standard Course in … Read More

Ontario Court Affirms “Generous and Liberal Approach” to the Recognition/Enforcement of Foreign Judgments

Josef FinkelCross-Border Litigation, Debt and Enforcing Judgments, Enforcement of Foreign Judgments0 Comments

In the recent decision, M1 Florida Developments Inc. v. Ameristar Development Corporation, 2021 ONSC 6883 (CanLII), the Ontario Superior Court of Justice (“OSCJ”) granted the plaintiffs default judgment in Ontario for the registration and enforcement of a judgment that the plaintiffs obtained in the United States of America (the “Foreign Judgment”). The OSCJ advised that Canadian courts “have adopted a generous and liberal approach to the recognition and enforcement of foreign judgments”. Further, the OSCJ opined that the purpose of an action for the recognition of a foreign judgment “is to assist in enforcing an already-adjudicated dispute” and is not “to evaluate or re-litigate the underlying claim”. The OSCJ was satisfied that the foreign court “properly assumed jurisdiction over the dispute” and noted that a Canadian court “will generally recognize and enforce a foreign judgment where the foreign court assumed jurisdiction on the same basis as the domestic court would”. … Read More

Recognition of Foreign Judgments – Supreme Court Leaves Determination of Enforceability of “Ricochet Judgments” for another day – Update on Previous Blog

Josef FinkelAppeals, Business Litigation, Civil Litigation, Commercial Litigation, Cross-Border Litigation, Debt and Enforcing Judgments, Enforcement of Foreign Judgments0 Comments

This is an update on our blog, Recognition of Foreign Judgments – The Ontario Courts will not Recognize Enforcement Orders (a.k.a. “Ricochet Judgments”), regarding the Superior Court decision in H.M.B. Holdings Ltd. v. Attorney General of Antigua and Barbuda, 2021 ONSC 2307 (CanLII). That decision has been appealed up to the Supreme Court of Canada (“SCC”), which has now also rendered its decision. In dismissing the appeal, the SCC agreed with the application judge, and with the Court of Appeal, that Ontario’s Reciprocal Enforcement of Judgments Act (the “Act”) bars the plaintiff (appellant) from registering a default judgment that it obtained in British Columbia to enforce a judgment granted by the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council. The SCC advised that the Act only applies to (1) reciprocating jurisdictions, such as British Columbia, and (2) judgments or orders of a court in a civil proceeding where a sum of money … Read More

Summary Judgment – Emerging Burdens of the Summary Judgment Motion Judge

David Alderson, LL.B, LL.M (Commercial and Corporate), Lawyer, Qualified Arbitrator and MediatorCivil Litigation, Commercial, Commercial Litigation, Summary Judgment0 Comments

Summary Judgment – Emerging Burdens of the Summary Judgment Motion Judge[i] David Alderson[ii], Senior Counsel – Commercial Litigation, at Gilbertson Davis LLP, co-counsel for the 13 plaintiffs (one of which was Mauldin), that responded to the appeal to the Supreme Court of Canada in Hryniak v. Mauldin[iii], that responded below to the appeal in the Ontario Court of Appeal, and that obtained summary judgment in the Ontario Superior Court of Justice, being the judgment which was appealed, has written two chapters of the Annual Review of Civil Litigation[iv], which if read together comprise a seven year survey of the appellate cases across Canada considering Hryniak and summary judgment. The chapter entitled Sentinels of the Hryniak Culture Shift: Four Years On[v], included in the Annual Review of Civil Litigation 2018[vi] covers appellate cases for the first four years following the Supreme Court of Canada decision. The second chapter Emerging Burdens of the Summary Judgment Motion … Read More

Breach of Agreement of Purchase and Sale – What are Your Options?

Josef FinkelCivil Litigation, Commercial and Contract Litigation, Contract Disputes, Contract Termination, Real Estate Litigation0 Comments

The Ontario Court of Appeal (ONCA) in Ching v. Pier 27 Toronto Inc., 2021 ONCA 551 (CanLII), recently outlined the options an innocent party to an agreement of purchase and sale (APS) has upon the other party breaching (i.e. repudiating) the APS. General Principles Repudiation is the refusal of one party to an APS to abide by the terms of the APS. Repudiation by one party does not in itself result in the termination of the APS. Rather, repudiation provides the innocent party (i.e. the non-repudiating party) to the APS with the following choices: Accept the repudiation (i.e. disaffirm the APS); or Treat the APS as subsisting (i.e. affirm the APS). The innocent party generally has a reasonable period of time to choose whether to disaffirm or affirm the APS. However, waiting too long may result in a court determining that the APS has been affirmed. During this reasonable waiting … Read More

Supreme Court of Canada Clarifies Duty Of Honest Performance In Contractual Relationships

Sabrina Saltmarsh, B.A. (Hons), J.D.Business Disputes, Commercial, Commercial Condos, Commercial Contracts, Commercial Litigation, Condo Litigation, Construction Liens, Contract Disputes0 Comments

In the decision of C.M. Callow Inc. v. Zollinger, 2020 SCC 45, the Supreme Court of Canada (SCC) expands on the scope of the duty of honest performance in contractual relationships, previously established by the SCC ruling in Bhasin v. Hrynew, 2014 SCC 71, [2014] 3 S.C.R. 494. Our firm previously blogged about the Court of Appeal Ruling in this case. See the previous blog here. The case concerns a breach of contract claim made by the Plaintiff. The Plaintiff is a company that provides maintenance services to condominium communities. The Defendants, a group of condominium corporations, had winter and summer maintenance contracts with the Plaintiff that renewed every two years. The contracts originated in 2012 and ran to 2014. In March or April of 2013, the Defendants decided to terminate the winter contract but they did not provide notice of their intention to terminate until September of 2013. The Defendants delayed … Read More