Can’t Get Financing On Time? You May Lose Your Deposit – Toronto Real Estate Lawyers

Josef FinkelCautions, Certificate of Pending Litigation, Civil Liability, Civil Litigation, Real Estate Agent and Broker, Real Estate Litigation0 Comments

In the recent decision of the Ontario Court of Appeal (“ONCA”), Nguyen v. Zaza, 2023 ONCA 34, the ONCA dismissed the appellant’s appeal from a decision of a judge of the Ontario Superior Court of Justice to grant the respondent’s summary judgment motion and order forfeiture of the appellant’s deposit of $50,000 to the respondent (among other relief). The appellant was the purchaser and the respondent was the seller of the subject property. The agreement of purchase and sale at the center of the dispute between the parties specifically indicated that time was of the essence. Originally, the agreement was conditional on the appellant arranging financing and a satisfactory home inspection, but the appellant waived those conditions prior to closing. The motion judge found that on the closing date the respondent was ready, willing, and able, to close whereas the appellant did not tender the purchase price required from her … Read More

How to Set Aside (Cancel) a Separation Agreement: Part 2

Kimberley Wilton, B.Sc. (Hons.), B.A., J.D.Division of Property, Divorce, Family Law, Separation, Separation Agreements0 Comments

As Part 1 of this series explained, courts generally respect the arrangements negotiated by parties in separation agreements, but can “set aside” (cancel) a separation agreement for several different reasons. Part 1 discussed two common grounds, (i) misunderstanding of the nature or consequences of the agreement, and (ii) duress, undue influence, fraud, misrepresentation, or public policy reasons. This Part 2 covers another common ground, failure to meet the financial disclosure requirements of the Family Law Act. Financial disclosure is the key obligation in family law. One of the most common reasons separation agreements are set aside (canceled) is for lack of financial disclosure or inadequate financial disclosure. Under the Family Law Act, parties cannot waive financial disclosure before entering into a separation agreement. Under the Family Law Act, the court can set aside a separation agreement if a party failed to disclose to the other significant assets, or significant debts … Read More

Failure To Close A Real Estate Transaction Can Be Very Costly

Josef FinkelCivil Liability, Civil Litigation, Contract Disputes, Real Estate Arbitrator, Real Estate Litigation, Recreational Property Litigation0 Comments

For many reasons, an agreement of purchase and sale to buy real estate may be breached by either the seller or the purchaser. The innocent party may be entitled to significant compensation. For instance, in the recent Ontario Court of Appeal (ONCA) decision, Rosehaven Homes Limited v. Aluko, 2022 ONCA 817, the ONCA upheld a lower court decision granting summary judgment requiring the appellants to pay damages to the respondent arising from the appellants’ failure to complete an agreement of purchase and sale for the purchase of a home. In that case, the appellants were unable to complete the transaction because they could not obtain sufficient financing. However, the agreement was not conditional on them obtaining financing. The respondent ultimately sold the property at a loss (compared to the sale price agreed to between the parties). The lower court awarded $331,922.27 to the respondent (being the difference between the original … Read More

Recognition of United States and Other Foreign Default Judgments – The Ontario Court Does Not Consider Underlying Merits!

Josef FinkelBusiness Litigation, Civil Liability, Civil Litigation, Commercial and Contract Litigation, Contract Disputes, Cross-Border Litigation, Debt and Enforcing Judgments, Enforcement of Foreign Judgments0 Comments

Just over a month ago, the Ontario Superior Court of Justice (“ONSC”) in North Field Technology Ltd. v. Project Investors, Inc., 2022 ONSC 5731, recognized as orders of Ontario a default judgment and various ancillary orders that the Applicant obtained in the United States District Court, Southern District of Florida (“Florida Court”), against the Respondents. The Florida Court found that the Respondents were evading service of the legal proceedings in Florida and issued a series of judgments against the Respondents such as an asset freeze injunction and permanent injunction restraining the Respondents from transferring their assets, as well as orders for certain monetary and declaratory relief, among other orders. The ONSC validated service of the Ontario application, recognizing that the Florida Court “has already found that the respondents were avoiding service”. The ONSC also found that the Applicant has met the test for recognition and enforcement of the Florida Judgments … Read More

To Sue or Not to Sue? Failure to Sue = No Compensation

Josef FinkelAppeals, Civil Liability, Civil Litigation, Commercial and Contract Litigation, Contract Disputes, Real Estate Litigation0 Comments

In Griffiths v. Zambosco, 2001 CanLII 24097 (ON CA), the Ontario Court of Appeal (“ONCA”) concluded that failure to sue is a bar to recovery of any compensation, even if the party to a lawsuit may otherwise have been entitled to compensation had she sued. In this case the Plaintiff sued the Appellant for negligence in respect of a vendor take back mortgage to the Plaintiff and his then-wife. The Plaintiff’s ex-wife refused to join the proceeding as a plaintiff and so the Plaintiff added her as a defendant. The trial judge found that the Appellant was negligent and awarded damages of close to $300,000 to both the Plaintiff and his ex-wife (almost $150,000 each). On appeal, the ONCA agreed with the trial judge that the Appellant owed a duty of care to both the Plaintiff and to the Plaintiff’s ex-wife. However, the ONCA did not agree with the trial … Read More

Entire Agreement Clause Not A Shield To Fraudulent Misrepresentation

Sabrina Saltmarsh, B.A. (Hons), J.D.Business Litigation, Civil Litigation, Commercial, Commercial and Contract Litigation, Commercial Contracts, Commercial Litigation, Construction Litigation, Contract Disputes, Real Estate Litigation0 Comments

In the recent Court of Appeal ruling of 10443204 Canada Inc. v. 2701835 Ontario Inc., 2022 ONCA 745, the Court of Appeal clarified that entire agreement clauses in contracts do not shield any representor or deprive any party to a contract from remedies available for a fraudulent misrepresentation. Background In May of 2019 the appellant Chirag Patel and his corporation 2701835 Ontario Inc. (the appellants) entered into a purchase agreement (the “APS”) with the respondent 10443204 Canada Inc. (the respondent), related to the purchase of a coin laundry business located in Brampton. The APS contained an entire agreement clause of which the relevant part indicated: “There is no representation, warranty, collateral agreement or condition, affecting this Agreement other than as expressed herein.” In accordance with amended terms to the APS concerning the purchase price the appellants made a partial payment of $100,000 on closing and the balance of the purchase … Read More

Court of Appeal Reiterates Limited Scope of Judicial Intervention to Set Aside Arbitral Awards

Sabrina Saltmarsh, B.A. (Hons), J.D.Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR), Appeals, Appellate Advocacy, Arbitration, By-laws, Civil Litigation, Commercial, Commercial Condos, Commercial Contracts, Commercial Litigation, Condo Arbitrator, Condo Litigation, Industrial Condos, Residential Condos0 Comments

In the recent Court of Appeal decision of Mensula Bancorp Inc. v. Halton Condominium Corporation No. 137, the Court of Appeal overturned a lower court decision setting aside an arbitrator’s award, on the basis that the approach taken by the learned application judge was contrary to that mandated by Alectra Utilities Corporation v. Solar Power Network Inc., 2019 ONCA 254, 145 O.R. (3d) 481, leave to appeal refused, [2019] S.C.C.A. No. 202 (Alectra). Background The Halton Condominium Corporation 137 (HCC 137) located in Oakville has 82 residential units and 166 parking units located within it’s parking garage, along with common elements such as a lobby and elevators. The parking units comprise of parking for the residential unit owners (the Residential Parking) along with 43 commercial parking units (the Commercial Parking) owned by the defendant Mensula Bancorp Inc. (Mensula), Mensula does not own any residential units and its business is located … Read More

Ontario Court of Appeal Rejects Recognition of Ricochet Judgment at Common Law

Sabrina Saltmarsh, B.A. (Hons), J.D.Commercial, Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards, Enforcement of Foreign Judgments0 Comments

In the recent Court of Appeal ruling of H.M.B. Holdings Limited v. Antigua and Barbuda, the Court of Appeal for Ontario considered whether an Ontario court should recognize and enforce a recognition and enforcement judgment (Ricochet Judgment) from another province pursuant to the common law. Background: The dispute between these parties has had a long history in the Ontario Courts and the Supreme Court of Canada. The Applicant H.M.B. brought an application to have an enforcement judgment of the province of British Columbia (B.C.) recognized in Ontario. Pursuant to default proceedings, the Supreme Court of B.C. recognized and enforced a foreign judgment issued by the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council (the Privy Council). The Respondent, the Attorney General of Antigua and Barbuda (Antigua) expropriated property owned by the appellant, located in Antigua and Barbuda. The Privy Council awarded compensation to H.M.B. for the expropriation. Antigua did not defend or … Read More

Rescission May Be Available Even If Innocent Third Parties Adversely Affected

Sabrina Saltmarsh, B.A. (Hons), J.D.Business Litigation, Commercial and Contract Litigation, Commercial Litigation, Construction Litigation, Contract Disputes, Real Estate Litigation0 Comments

In the recent Court of Appeal decision of Urban Mechanical Contracting Ltd. v. Zurich Insurance Company Ltd., 2022 ONCA 589, the Court of Appeal considered whether rescission is ever available as a matter of law when the rights of innocent third parties intervene and restitutio in integrum (putting the parties back to their original position) is impossible. The court answered in the affirmative. In the case the appellants brought two applications seeking a determination of whether, as a matter of law, a bond issuer can rescind a bond agreement on the basis of fraudulent misrepresentations and collusion when doing so would affect the rights of innocent parties. Background The case dealt with a public-private redevelopment project with infrastructure Ontario to build a new 17-storey patient care tower (the Project). The construction was to be financed and carried out by the private sector. The Project was subject to Ontario’s procurement process … Read More

How to Set Aside (Cancel) a Separation Agreement: Part 1

Kimberley Wilton, B.Sc. (Hons.), B.A., J.D.Appeals, Cohabitation Agreements, Family Law, Separation, Separation Agreements, Spousal Support0 Comments

Courts generally respect the arrangements negotiated by parties in separation agreements. However, under the Family Law Act, there are several grounds on which a court can “set aside” (cancel) a separation agreement. A party seeking to set aside a separation agreement must show the court their matter falls within one of these grounds and then convince the court to exercise its discretion in their favor and set aside the agreement. A recent case illustrates two of the most common grounds to set aside a separation agreement: (i) if a party did not understand the nature or consequences of the domestic contract; and (ii) where there is duress, undue influence, fraud, misrepresentation, or for public policy reasons. Radosevich v Harvey involved an appeal of a lower court decision. The appellant, Ms. Radosevich, had sued her former family law lawyer, Ms. Harvey, for being negligent in the negotiation of her separation agreement. … Read More

The Top Four Family Dispute Resolution Options

Kimberley Wilton, B.Sc. (Hons.), B.A., J.D.Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR), Child Support, Collaborative Family Law, Custody and Access, Division of Property, Family Law, Family Law Mediation, Family Law Mediator, Marriage Contracts, Separation, Separation Agreements0 Comments

Most separating spouses do not resolve their parenting, support, and property issues in court. In fact, Canada’s Divorce Act requires separating spouses and their lawyers to try to resolve these issues through an out-of-court process unless it is inappropriate to do so.  This can be a cheaper, faster, and less acrimonious way to settle family law disputes than traditional court litigation.  These out-of-court options are referred to by the general term ‘family dispute resolution process’ (FDR). The most common forms of (FDR) processes, are negotiation, collaborative family law, mediation, and arbitration. This can be formal negotiation between lawyers or more informal negotiation between the parties themselves, with or without lawyers. Negotiation can occur when only one party has a lawyer, and the other party does not. Most separating couples try negotiation first before proceeding to other forms of FDR.   Collaborative family law is a form of negotiation, that attempts … Read More

Allegedly Defamatory Review Found not to Relate to a Matter of Public Interest

Josef FinkelBusiness Defamation, Civil Liability, Cyber Libel, Defamation, Internet Defamation, Libel, Online Defamation, Slander0 Comments

In Echelon Environmental Inc. v. Glassdoor Inc., 2022 ONCA 391, the Ontario Court of Appeal (“ONCA”) dismissed the appellant’s appeal from a decision of the motion judge of the Ontario Superior Court of Justice, in which the motion judge denied the appellant’s request to dismiss the respondent’s defamation action under s. 137.1 of the Courts of Justice Act (“Act”), known as the “anti-SLAPP” provision of the Act. The appeal mainly focused on whether an anonymous workplace review by an employee about his/her employer relates to a matter of public interest as required by s. 137.1(3) of the Act. The ONCA opined that on such motions, “expression is to be assessed as a whole”. As such, the question is whether: “some segment of the community would have a genuine interest in receiving information on the subject”. The court must ask: “Understood in its context, what is the impugned expression really about”? … Read More

Undocumented Trusts – No Requirement for Formal Trust Agreements

Josef FinkelAppeals, Civil Litigation, Commercial and Contract Litigation, Contract Disputes, Recreational Property Litigation, Trust Litigation0 Comments

In the recent decision from the Ontario Court of Appeal (“ONCA”), Corvello v. Colucci, 2022 ONCA 159, the ONCA confirmed that a trust can exist even where there is no written trust agreement. At issue in the case was the ownership of a land use permit which allowed the holder(s) of the permit to build on and use the land for recreational purposes. In the court of first instance, the appellant took the position that the permit belonged to him alone. However, the trial judge determined that the appellant actually held the permit “in trust for himself and the respondents as beneficial owners”. On appeal, the appellant argued that the trial judge erred in law and in fact by determining that an undocumented trust agreement existed. The ONCA advised that it is trite law that a valid trust requires “three certainties: certainty of intention to create a trust, certainty of … Read More

Broker and Agent Liability Claims Arbitrator – Reasonable Fees – Good Availability

David Alderson, LL.B, LL.M (Commercial and Corporate), Lawyer, Qualified Arbitrator and MediatorAgency Arbitrator, Arbitration, Broker and Agent Claims, Brokerage Arbitrator, Commercial, Commercial Arbitrator, Real Estate Arbitrator, Sale of Business Arbitrator0 Comments

David Alderson, LL.B, LL.M, Qualified Arbitrator Broker Dispute Arbitrator | Agent Dispute Arbitrator  David Alderson is an independent, experienced and qualified Arbitrator. His practice in broker and agent claims in real estate, mortgage, business, securities and investment, insurance and  reinsurance, distribution, marine and transportation cases make him an ideal choice as sole or panel arbitrator in broker and agent claims arbitrations. He has been appointed by the courts in commercial arbitration disputes. Broker and Agent Claims Arbitration  David can be appointed in arbitrations concerning these professionals: Business (Sale of) Brokers Real Estate Brokers and Agents Realtors Mortgage Brokers Stockbrokers Securities Brokers Commodities Brokers Insurance  Brokers and Agents Life Insurance Agents Commercial Brokers Merchandise Broker Shipbrokers Yacht Brokers Freight Brokers Arbitration Expertise   David has arbitrated disputes on a wide variety of matters, and has been appointed by the Ontario Superior Court of Justice as sole arbitrator in commercial arbitration matters. He is an arbitrating … Read More

Family Violence: New Tort Recognized in Ontario

Josef FinkelCivil Liability, Civil Litigation, Sexual Assault, Sexual Harassment0 Comments

In the recent decision, Ahluwalia v. Ahluwalia, 2022 ONSC 1303, the court recognized the new tort of “family violence” as a civil remedy, outside of the scope of family/criminal liability. The court awarded $150,000 “in compensatory, aggravated, and punitive damages for the tort of family violence”, recognizing that such an award “is well-outside the normal boundaries of family law”. Recognition of the New Tort of Family Violence The court recognized that the Divorce Act “does not create a complete statutory scheme to address all the legal issues that arise in a situation of alleged family violence” and does not provide the victim of family violence “with a direct avenue to obtain reparations for harms that flow directly from family violence and that go well-beyond the economic fallout of the marriage”. Further, the Divorce Act prohibits consideration of “misconduct” when making a spousal award. At “its heart, spousal support is compensatory … Read More

Professional Liability Claims Arbitrator – Experienced and Qualified Arbitrator with Reasonable Fee Rates

David Alderson, LL.B, LL.M (Commercial and Corporate), Lawyer, Qualified Arbitrator and MediatorAlternative Dispute Resolution (ADR), Arbitration, Arbitrators, Brokerage Arbitrator, Business Arbitrator, Business Dispute Arbitrator, Commercial Arbitrator, Commercial Lease Arbitrator, Condo Arbitrator, Construction Arbitrator, Directors' and Officers' Liability, International Joint Venture, Investment Arbitrator, Joint Venture Arbitrator, Joint Venture Disputes, Partnership Arbitrator, Partnership Dispute, Partnership Dispute Arbitrator, Professional Liability Claims Arbitrator, Real Estate Arbitrator0 Comments

Professional Liability Claims Arbitrator  David Alderson is an independent, experienced and qualified Arbitrator.  Practice in professional liability, professional indemnity and professional negligence cases make him a good choice as sole or panel arbitrator in professional liability claims arbitrations. He has been appointed by the courts in commercial arbitration disputes. Business & Financial Professionals Property and Real Estate Professionals David can be appointed as sole arbitrator concerning claims and disputes involving these professionals: Business & Financial Professionals Directors Officers Accountants Actuaries Auditors Investment Advisors Financial Advisors Financial Planners Financial Analyst Investigators Consultants Trustees Securities Brokers Valuators Lawyers Partners Joint Venture Parties Retirement Plan Administrators Property and Real Estate Real Estate Brokers Real Estate Agents Stakeholders Fiduciaries Architects Engineers Auctioneers Lawyers Fiduciaries Trustees Estate Trustees Administrators Executors Receivers Trustees in Bankruptcy Lawyers Arbitration Expertise David has arbitrated disputes on a wide variety of matters, and has been appointed by the Ontario Superior … Read More

Are my Trademark Rights being Breached? Trademark Infringement and Passing Off Lawyers

Josef FinkelBrand Protection, Business Disputes, Civil Litigation, Commercial Litigation, Copyright Infringement, Intellectual Property, Passing Off, Trademark Infringement0 Comments

In Subway IP LLC v. Budway, Cannabis & Wellness Store, 2021 FC 583, the Federal Court of Canada (“FC”) found that the respondents infringed on the applicant’s registered trademark contrary to section 20 of the Trademarks Act. The FC found that the use of the “BUDWAY” trademark amounted to the tort of passing off and depreciation of goodwill in the appellant’s trademark. As a result, the court granted the applicant, Subway, damages in the amount of $15,000 and an injunction against the respondents prohibiting them, among other things, from dealing in goods or services in association with the trademark or trade name “BUDWAY”. What is Considered a Breach of Trademark Rights? In the FC’s reasons for its decision, it advised generally that: A trademark registration grants the owner the exclusive right to use the mark throughout Canada in respect of the goods and services in the registration; The right to … Read More